Migration Trends 2006/07
Temporary workers and students make an important contribution to New Zealand’s economy. People on work permits are an important source of labour and skills, offering skills and experience that New Zealand employers need. Many work permit holders become permanent residents after some time in New Zealand, and there are specific work permit policies that promote this transition. There is now an established link between temporary workers and permanent, skilled migration.
International students contribute to New Zealand’s economic development through foreign exchange earnings, by promoting international links and by participating in the labour force after their study. A growing number of international students gain permanent residence in New Zealand after completing their studies. These students can offer employers New Zealand qualifications and, having participated in New Zealand society, are likely to settle well and contribute to New Zealand. This chapter describes the trends in the number of people coming to New Zealand on temporary student or work permits.  Appendix C provides a breakdown of the number of people issued work and student permits by nationality for the 2006/07 financial year.
Anyone who wishes to work in New Zealand (except New Zealand or Australian citizens or residents) must have a work permit. The objective of work permit policy is to contribute to developing New Zealand’s capability base by allowing New Zealand employers to access global skills and knowledge. Work permit policy also aims to ensure that the employment of temporary migrants does not undermine the wages and conditions of New Zealand workers.
Work permit policy allows people to enter New Zealand for a variety of work-related purposes. Some policies allow employers to recruit temporary workers from overseas to meet particular or seasonal skill needs that cannot be met from within New Zealand. Other policies allow family members to participate in the labour market, and these migrants make an important contribution to the current environment of skill and labour shortages. Work permits are also issued to young people (aged 18–30 years) participating in Working Holiday Schemes, and to people applying through the Work to Residence policies. A full list of work permits is given in Appendix D.
The number of people issued work permits has increased substantially in recent years, with numbers growing at approximately 18 percent per year over the last decade. In 2006/07, 115,457 individuals were issued work permits, 16 percent more than in 2005/06. Figure 3.1 shows the growth in the number of people issued a work permit since 1997/98.
Figure 3.1 Principal applicants granted work permits since 1997/98
Many factors have contributed to the growth in work permit numbers. These include the expansion of the Working Holiday Schemes, the introduction of new policies such as the Work to Residence policies and the Study to Work policies, and a growing number of work permits issued through the Partnership policy. In 2006/07, much of the increase came from working holidaymakers, seasonal workers, foreign graduates taking up the Study to Work policies, work permits issued to the partners of temporary workers or students, and an increase in the number of permits issued to people for specific purposes or events.  Figure 3.2 compares the broad categories of work permit types between 2005/06 and 2006/07.
Figure 3.2 Comparison of work permit types in 2005/06 and 2006/07
Nationality of work permit holders
The UK was the largest source country of work permit holders in the current period (16 percent) followed by China (13 percent). The number of Chinese people granted work permits has increased significantly in recent years, from around 7,000 in 2004/05 to over 14,800 in 2006/07. Much of this growth has stemmed from the introduction of the Study to Work policies (July 2005) for international students upon the completion of their New Zealand qualification. In 2006/07, 79 percent of all Graduate Job Search permits (3,527 out of 4,458) were issued to Chinese graduates. Figure 3.3 provides a breakdown of work permit holders by nationality over the last three financial years.
Figure 3.3 Nationality of work permit holders: 2004/05–2006/07
Of the main source countries, Malaysia and the Philippines have had the greatest proportional increase over the last twelve months – an 83 percent increase for Malaysia and a 68 percent increase for the Philippines. Malaysia and the Philippines each represented 3 percent of work permit holders in 2006/07. Much of the increase has been in the number of General work permits issued to applicants from both countries, Working Holidaymaker permits and Seasonal Labour permits for Malaysian applicants, and Skilled Migrant Work to Residence permits for applicants from the Philippines. Appendix E provides a breakdown of work permit holders by nationality since 1997/98.
Labour market tested work permits
Labour market tested work permits allow New Zealand employers to recruit temporary workers from overseas to meet shortages that cannot be met from within New Zealand, while protecting employment opportunities for New Zealand citizens and residents. They consist of the General work permit, permits issued under the Approval in Principle policy, some business policies, machinery installers, specialist skill areas, Seasonal Work Permit policy, and Japanese interpreters. 
In 2006/07, 34,353 people were issued a labour market tested work permit (30 percent of all work permits), 14 percent more than in 2005/06.  The UK has remained the largest source country with 14 percent of all labour market tested work permits in 2006/07, followed by China (8 percent). The number of approvals from the two main source countries has decreased, while approval numbers from some of the smaller source countries such as Brazil, Fiji, the Philippines, and Malaysia, have increased. Figure 3.4 provides a breakdown of labour market tested work permit holders by nationality over the last three financial years.
Figure 3.4 Nationality of labour market tested work permit holders: 2004/05–2006/07
Occupations of people on labour market tested work permits
This section details the types of occupations recorded against work permit holders where the granting of the work permit is subject to a labour market test. This analysis excludes work permit holders approved on the basis of a family relationship, a Working Holiday Scheme, refugee claimants, or those issued to international students upon completion of their New Zealand qualification.
Table 3.1 lists the most common occupational groups recorded using the New Zealand Standard Classification of Occupations (NZSCO). The most common occupational group for labour market tested work permit holders was Agriculture and Fishery Workers (25 percent), the majority of whom were recruited through the Seasonal Work Permit policy or an Approval in Principle for seasonal work in the horticulture and viticulture industries. The second largest group were Service and Sales Workers (16 percent), followed by Professionals (15 percent).
|Occupational group||Number of work permit holders||% of work permit holders|
|Legislators, Administrators, Managers||2,396||8%|
|Technicians and Associate Professionals||3,813||13%|
|Service and Sales Workers||4,981||16%|
|Agriculture and Fishery Workers||7,483||25%|
|Plant and Machine Operators and Assemblers||2,565||8%|
* Includes occupations not listed in the NZSCO or unidentifiable responses.
** In 2006/07, 34,353 principal applicants were issued a labour market tested work permit, but the occupation was not recorded in every instance.
|Main occupation group||Examples of occupations|
|Legislators, Administrators, Managers||General manager
Secondary school teacher
|Technicians and Associate Professionals||Sports coach, instructor, or trainer
Automotive engineering technician
|Service and Sales Workers||Chef
|Agriculture and Fishery Workers||Orchard/vineyard worker
Dairy farm manager/worker
|Plant and Machine Operators and Assemblers||Sewing machinist
Heavy truck driver
Ship crew member
|Elementary occupations||Builder's labourer
Working Holiday Schemes
Working Holiday Schemes (WHSs) allow young people to experience living and working in New Zealand. The schemes help to strengthen international links and contribute to New Zealand’s economy through tourism and employment. WHSs allow 18–30 year olds from partner countries to spend 12 months (two years for UK working holidaymakers) in New Zealand and undertake work of a temporary nature. WHSs also allow young New Zealanders to work overseas under reciprocal agreements. New Zealand currently has WHSs with 26 countries with up to 50,000 places available.
The number of young people coming to New Zealand as working holidaymakers has increased steadily in recent years. In July 2005, a number of policy changes came into effect that increased the number of places available in many of the schemes, eased the work restrictions for some schemes, and introduced online processing for most applicants.
In the last two years, new WHSs have commenced. These include WHSs with Norway, Thailand and Estonia. There were 32,489 people approved through the various schemes in 2006/07, with the greatest numbers coming from the UK and Germany. The number of working holidaymakers has increased from 21,025 in 2004/05 and 28,540 in 2005/06. Table 3.3 shows the annual cap for each WHS partner country and the number of people issued Working Holidaymaker permits in 2006/07. In 2006/07, there were substantial increases in the number of working holidaymakers from South Korea, Malaysia, Germany, Czech Republic and Taiwan. Numbers from Ireland and Japan decreased.
|Country||Places available in
|People issued permits
|United Kingdom||no cap||8,559|
|United States of America||5,000||2,120|
* Individual schemes have differing years over which the annual cap operates, depending on when the agreement with each country was signed. Therefore the annual caps indicated do not correspond to a July–June financial year, and are only provided for the information of the reader.
Eleven percent more women than men were issued work permits across all WHSs. For some schemes, however, the gender differences were more notable. For the schemes with Japan, Taiwan, Thailand and Hong Kong, there were much higher proportions of women (at least twice as many) than men participating in the schemes. For other schemes, such as Chile, Italy and Uruguay, there were greater proportions of men, although overall numbers in some of these schemes were relatively low.
A high proportion of working holidaymakers were in their early twenties, with 39 percent between 22 and 25 years old. There were slightly more women than men across all ages with the exception of 20 year olds, where there were slightly more men. Figure 3.5 shows the age and gender distribution of working holidaymakers in 2006/07. Appendix F provides a breakdown of the ratio of women to men approved for all work permits (by age group and nationality) in 2006/07.
Figure 3.5 Age and gender of working holidaymakers in 2006/07 (n = 32,489)
The objective of student immigration policy is to facilitate the entry of foreign students, with a focus on attracting and developing students who have the skills and talent New Zealand needs. Export education is estimated to contribute over two billion dollars annually in foreign exchange to New Zealand.  In addition to the financial gain from student migration, host countries stand to benefit from the improvement of political and economic relations with sending countries.  In New Zealand, international students can also play an important role in the labour market through their labour participation post study, particularly if they are qualified, and gain employment, in areas of skills shortage.
International students attending courses lasting over three months must apply for a student visa before travelling to New Zealand. Students from a visa waiver country may apply for a student permit in New Zealand. Non-New Zealand residents are not required to obtain a student permit to attend a course for three months or less.
In July 2005, a number of policy changes came into effect, some of which were enhanced in November 2007. The aim of the 2005 changes was to make New Zealand a more competitive destination for international students by easing the work restrictions for students and their partners. Since July 2005:
- international students who graduate from a course that would gain points under the Skilled Migrant Category have been eligible for a six-month open work permit (Graduate Job Search permit) – the duration of this permit was increased to 12 months from November 2007
- some students are eligible to apply for a two-year post study work permit to obtain practical work experience relevant to their qualification – from November 2007, this permit was increased to 3 years for graduates who require 3 years work experience in New Zealand to qualify for membership or registration with professional bodies
- the pool of students eligible to work part-time while studying has been expanded to include Year 12 and 13 school students and some English language students, provided certain conditions, including English language standards, are met
- eligible students have been able to apply to work for up to 20 hours a week during term (previously the limit was 15 hours)
- anyone undertaking a course of 12 months or more can apply to work full-time over the summer holidays
- partners of students studying in areas of absolute skill shortage and partners of all post graduate students can apply for an open work permit valid for the duration of the student’s course of study.
Student approval numbers
New Zealand’s international student population grew rapidly from 1999/00, peaking in 2002/03 with over 87,000 students issued a permit. More recently, however, the number of students coming from New Zealand’s main source country, China, has been in decline. Decreasing numbers of Chinese students have had a marked impact on the overall numbers of international students, but growth in permit numbers from many other source countries has helped to offset the downward trend. Figure 3.6 shows the growth in international student numbers since 1997/98.
Figure 3.6 Principal applicants granted student permits since 1997/98
In 2004, the government announced a significant commitment to supporting international education. This commitment was increased in April 2005, bringing the government’s investment in international education to over $70 million over the five years beginning June 2004. 
Total student numbers continued to decrease in 2006/07 but much less so than in the previous two years. In 2006/07, 67,147 people were approved to study, down 3 percent from 69,223 in 2005/06. In 2006/07, the decrease of over 6,400 permit approvals from China was offset by increasing numbers in eight out of the top ten source countries.
Student numbers from South Korea increased by 10 percent from 10,100 in 2005/06 to 11,100 in 2006/07, the first increase since 2002/03. The number of students from some of the smaller source countries, such as India, Germany, Malaysia and the Philippines, continue their upward trend. For India, the increase was 30 percent in 2006/07.
Research published by the Ministry of Education shows that the reduction in international students between 2002 and 2005 had a significant impact on enrolments in schools, English language training providers and private tertiary education organisations. Conversely, enrolments in public tertiary education institutions have increased in recent years and accounted for 43 percent of enrolments in 2005.
In 2006/07, Chinese students accounted for 30 percent of those issued a permit, followed by South Korea (17 percent), Japan and India (5 percent each). Japanese student numbers have continued to decrease since 2002/03, but the Ministry of Education’s enrolment data shows an increase in Japanese students enrolled in English language schools. This anomaly may indicate that many Japanese students are undertaking short courses while on a visitor permit.  New Zealand’s international student population is remarkably diverse, with permits granted to students from over 150 nationalities in 2006/07. Appendix G provides a breakdown of student numbers from the top source countries since 1997/98.
Students approved offshore
The number of international students approved offshore (student visas) is an indicator of the number of new students coming to study in New Zealand. Offshore approval numbers decreased steadily after 2001/02, but have been on the increase in the last two years. In 2006/07, offshore approvals were 22,260, 17 percent up on the 19,050 in 2005/06. Offshore approvals from China increased for the first time since 2001/02, although numbers remain relatively low compared to 2001/02. In 2006/07, offshore approval numbers increased for eight of the top ten source countries, with relatively large increases from India, South Korea and the Philippines. Figure 3.7 shows the number of offshore approvals from the largest source countries in the last four financial years.
Figure 3.7 Number of students approved offshore for the top source countries: 2003/04–2006/07
Age and gender of international students
More males than females were issued a student permit in 2006/07, although the ratios vary considerably between different source countries. Among the main source countries, India had the lowest proportion of females relative to males. For Japan and the USA, females outnumbered males. Table 3.4 details the gender ratios by age group and nationality for the main source countries in 2006/07 (see Appendix H for greater detail).
Student transitions to work
Internationally, foreign students have become an increasingly important target of immigration policies that aim to attract and retain talented migrants.  For many students, the prospect of gaining residence in the host cou ntry plays a role in their decision to study abroad.  New Zealand’s Student policy changes introduced in July 2005, and enhanced in November 2007, were intended to facilitate the transition from study to work and residence by creating more opportunities to work while studying, and allowing greater access to work permits post study.
In 2006/07, 4,458 students were issued the Graduate Job Search work permit, a similar number to 2005/06. Applicants are not required to have a job offer for this permit, but must have completed a New Zealand qualification that would qualify for points under the SMC, and must apply within three months of the end date of their student permit for that qualification. In 2006/07, 79 percent of students issued the Graduate Job Search work permit were Chinese. The next largest source country was India (6 percent), followed by South Korea and Malaysia (2 percent each).
The number of people issued a two-year work permit to obtain practical experience suitable to their course or qualification increased from 1,135 people in 2005/06 to 3,824 in 2006/07. Applicants for this work permit type must have completed a minimum three-year course or completed a qualification that would qualify for points under the SMC, and must have a job offer relevant to their course of study. Of those issued this work permit type, 78 percent were from China, followed by India (9 percent), South Korea and Malaysia (2 percent each).
Transitions from temporary to permanent residence
Linking temporary immigration policy with residence policy can have significant benefits for both migrants and New Zealand. Having participated in New Zealand society, temporary workers and students are likely to settle well and contribute to the country. Research has shown a positive link between migrants’ work experience in New Zealand prior to residence and their employment outcomes after gaining residence. 
This analysis examines the cohort of people approved for permanent residence in 2006/07 and identifies any previous temporary permits held by these migrants. The analysis shows that, of the 46,964 people approved for residence, 89 percent of principal applicants and 70 percent of secondary applicants had previously held a temporary permit. Ninety-two percent of Skilled/Business principal applicants previously held a temporary permit, compared to 89 percent of Family Sponsored principal applicants and 65 percent of International/Humanitarian principal applicants.
Figure 3.8 shows the proportion of people, by nationality, who held a temporary permit prior to residence approval. Of the top ten residence nationalities in 2006/07, over 95 percent of principal applicants from South Korea, the USA and the Philippines had held a temporary permit prior to residence approval.
Figure 3.8 Proportion of people granted residence from the main source countries in 2006/07 who had previously held a temporary permit
Most recently held temporary permit
The most recently held temporary permit was identified for those migrants who had held a visitor, student, or work permit prior to residence. Work permits were the most recently held temporary permit type for principal applicants with prior experience in New Zealand (73 percent), while visitor permits were the most recently held permit type for secondary applicants.
Table 3.5 shows that there were considerable differences between principal and secondary applicants, and between people approved through the various streams. Of those secondary applicants who had held a temporary permit, 38 percent had most recently held a visitor permit, 31 percent a student permit and 31 percent a work permit. Many secondary applicants were dependent children, and therefore, a much lower proportion of secondary applicants held a work permit prior to residence.
|Residence approval stream||Applicant type||Residence approvals in 06/07||% who held a temporary permit*||Most recent temporary permit|
* The proportion of approvals who held a temporary permit at some point between July 1997 and June 2007.
Most recently held work permit
This analysis is of principal applicants who most recently held a work permit prior to residence. In 2006/07, 22,629 principal applicants out of 25,298 (89 percent) had previously held a temporary permit. Of the 89 percent, 73 percent had most recently held a work permit.
The table below shows the type of work permit held by principal applicants prior to residence approval in 2006/07. Labour market tested work permits were the most common (39 percent), particularly those issued through the General work permit policy. Thirty-three percent of work permits were issued to partners of New Zealand citizens or residents. Other work permit types included the Skilled Migrant and Talent (Accredited Employer) Work to Residence policies, and those issued to international students on completion of their New Zealand qualifications.
|Type of work permit held||n||%|
|Labour market tested||6,431||39%|
|Partnership – New Zealand resident/citizen||5,372||33%|
|Work to Residence||1,722||10%|
|Work post study||1,318||8%|
Temporary permit holders moving to permanent residence
The section examines all migrants approved to work or study in New Zealand between July 1997 and June 2007 and describes their transition patterns to permanent residence. Many migrants in this analysis had more than one temporary permit issued over the ten-year period. The analysis method used in this section took the first student or work permit held for an individual and tracked their transition to permanent residence. 
Transition from work to residence
On average, 6 percent of work permit holders gained permanent residence in the same financial year as their first work permit was issued. Over time, however, the number of work permit holders converting to residence increases for any given cohort. Around 30 percent of work permit holders gain permanent residence within five years of being issued their first work permit.
Although the proportion of work permit holders converting to residence is relatively steady over time, the increasing number of people granted a work permit since 1997/98 has seen a growing number of temporary workers converting to permanent residence. Table 3.7 shows the cumulative proportion of people in each cohort who converted to residence in subsequent years. The shaded cells indicate comparable proportions across the cohorts.
|Year first work permit approved|
|Cumulative proportion (%) converted to residence||97/98||7%|
|Total in cohort||26,330||25,730||26,080||37,080||47,700||51,830||53,950||58,620||73,620||82,900|
* Raw numbers are rounded to the nearest multiple of 10.
Figure 3.9 represents the proportion of work permit holders converting to residence over time. The graph is read as the cumulative proportion of people in each cohort who converted to residence in subsequent years. The take-up of residence by work permit holders tends to be greatest in the first two years after the work permit was issued.
The increasing proportion of workers gaining residence from 2003/04 onwards is a flow-on effect of migrants being approved through Work to Residence policies as well as a reflection of the growing number of skilled migrants working in New Zealand prior to residence.
Figure 3.9 Cumulative residence take-up by principal applicants granted their first work permit between 1997/98 and 2006/07*
* Each line represents a separate cohort
Transition from study to residence
On average, the transition to residence for students is lower than it is for work permit holders, and students tend to take longer to make the transition. Approximately 20 percent of students gain permanent residence in New Zealand within five years of their first student permit. This proportion levels out at around 25 percent after seven years or more.
Table 3.8 shows the number of principal applicants granted their first student permit between 1997/98 and 2006/07 and the cumulative proportion subsequently granted residence. The table is read as the cumulative proportion of student permit holders in each cohort who convert to residence in subsequent years. The shaded cells indicate comparable proportions across the cohorts.
|Year first student permit approved|
|Cumulative proportion (%) converted to residence||97/98||1%|
|Total in cohort||17,920||14,090||17,900||30,420||47,560||43,370||31,150||26,090||27,330||32,490|
* Raw numbers are rounded to the nearest multiple of 10.
Figure 3.10 represents the proportion of student permit holders gaining residence over time. The take-up of residence by students approved in the earlier cohorts tended to be greatest in the first 2–3 years after the student permit was issued. Since 2000/01, however, the trend becomes more linear, with a steady take-up of residence over time. This trend coincides with an increasing number of international tertiary students.
From 2003/04 onwards, transition rates are relatively high in the first two years compared to the transition rates for earlier cohorts. This reflects a high number of students gaining residence as dependents, and corresponds to the increase in work permit holders (their parents) gaining residence over the same period.
Figure 3.10 Cumulative residence take-up by principal applicants granted a student permit between 1997/98 and 2006/07
* Each line represents a separate cohort.
- In 2006/07, 115,457 people were granted a work permit, an increase of 16 percent from 2005/06. Much of the increase in 2006/07 came from working holidaymakers, foreign graduates taking up the Study to Work policies and an increase in the number of permits issued to people for specific purposes or events.
- The UK was the largest source of temporary workers (16 percent), followed by China (13 percent). Chinese work permit numbers have more than doubled since 2004/05, largely a result of the Study to Work policies introduced in July 2005.
- Thirty percent of work permit holders were granted their permit subject to a labour market test. The UK was the largest source country of these work permits (14 percent) followed by China (8 percent).
- The occupations of people granted labour market tested work permits were diverse, spreading across all occupational groups. There was a substantial increase in the number of agricultural workers in 2006/07, a result of work policies aimed at helping to alleviate the labour shortages in the horticulture and viticulture industries.
- New Zealand has Working Holiday Schemes with 26 countries, with up to 50,000 places available. A number of changes came into effect from July 2005, including changes to the numerical limits and work restrictions for some schemes. Working holidaymaker numbers have increased from 21,025 in 2004/05 to almost 32,500 in 2006/07.
- In 2006/07, 67,147 people were issued a student permit, down 3 percent on 2005/06. Chinese student numbers have continued to decrease but have been offset by increases in eight of the ten main source countries. South Korean student numbers increased by 10 percent in 2006/07, the first increase since 2002/03.
- Permits were granted to students from over 150 different nationalities in 2006/07, but the top 10 source countries accounted for 77 percent of students. China was the largest source country (30 percent), followed by South Korea (17 percent), Japan and India (5 percent each).
- Eighty-nine percent of principal applicants and 70 percent of secondary applicants approved for residence in 2006/07 had previously held a temporary visitor, student, or work permit. Ninety-two percent of Skilled/Business Stream migrants held previously held a temporary permit.
- Approximately 30 percent of work permit holders gain permanent residence within five years of being issued their first work permit. The equivalent figure for international students is approximately 20 percent after five years, increasing to around 25 percent after seven years or more.
 This analysis is of individuals who, at any time in the 2006/07 financial year, were issued a permit, not of the total number of permits issued per se. If a person was issued more than one permit in the current period, only the most recently held permit is used in this analysis.
 Specific purpose or event permits are issued to people for a particular period (usually for less than 12 months) who are skilled in areas relevant to that specific purpose or event. Examples of specific purposes or events include specific types of business or sporting activities, entertainers, performing artists, film, and video production crew who meet certain requirements.
 The General work permit is the standard 'skill shortage' work permit consisting of occupations on the Immediate Skill Shortage List (ISSL), the Long Term Skill Shortage List (LTSSL), or where a labour market test has been conducted to ensure no New Zealanders are available to do the work. There are other policies that are related to skill shortages, such as the Talent (Accredited Employers) or Long Term Skill Shortage List Occupation Work to Residence policies, but these policies have not been included in this analysis.
 The work permit policies used in this analysis differ slightly from previous years. In order to have comparable total numbers between 2005/06 and 2006/07, data from previous years was coded retrospectively.
 Infometrics (2006): The Economic impacts of Foreign Fee-Paying Students.
 Suter & Jandl, 2006: Comparative study on policies towards foreign graduates - Study on Admission and Retention Policies towards Foreign Students in Industrialised Countries. International Centre of Migration Policy Development (ICMPD), Vienna.
 One such initiative included funding to lower the cost of study for international PhD students (to domestic fee levels) and to allow the dependent children of PhD students to attend school without paying international school fees. These changes came into effect for PhD students (and their dependent children) in January 2006. Since May 2006, dependent children of New Zealand citizens or residents who are applying for citizenship or residence have had domestic student status.
 Ministry of Education, 2007: International Enrolments in New Zealand 2000-2006.
 Non-New Zealand residents are not required to obtain a student permit to attend a course for three months or less.
 Suter & Jandl, 2006: Comparative study on policies towards foreign graduates - Study on Admission and Retention Policies towards Foreign Students in Industrialised Countries. International Centre of Migration Policy Development (ICMPD), Vienna.
 Ward & Masgoret, 2004: The Experiences of International Students in New Zealand. Report on the results of the national survey. Ministry of Education. Wellington.
 Dunstan, S., Boyd, S., and Crichton, S. (2004). Migrants' Experiences of New Zealand. Pilot Survey Report, Longitudinal Immigration Survey: New Zealand (LisNZ). Department of Labour. Wellington.
 This analysis examines work permit holders and student permit holders separately. However, some migrants had held both a work permit and a student permit over the analysis period, and were therefore counted once in each analysis.