Migration Trends and Outlook 2007/08
PERMANENT RESIDENCE APPROVALS
- In 2007/08, 46,077 people were granted permanent residence in New Zealand: 59percent through the Skilled/Business Stream; 32percent through the family-sponsored streams, and 9percent through the International/Humanitarian Stream.
- An increasing proportion of people are living and working in New Zealand before applying for residence. In 2007/08, 81percent of approved applications were made in New Zealand (77percent in 2006/07).
- The largest source countries in 2007/08 were the United Kingdom (22percent), China (13percent), and South Africa (9percent). The Philippines is growing in significance, increasing from 2percent of residence approvals in 2005/06 to 8percent in 2007/08.
- The average age of people approved for residence was 30 years; principal applicants, 35 years (with two-thirds aged 20-39), secondary applicants, 23 years (more than half aged under 20), Skilled/Business Stream migrants, 27 years, Uncapped Family Sponsored Stream migrants, 28years, Parent Sibling Adult Child Stream migrants, 51 years, and International/Humanitarian Stream migrants, 24 years.
This section overviews immigration trends since 1998/99 and describes the characteristics of people approved for residence in 2007/08. Further information about the characteristics of approvals in each residence stream is in chapters 7-9.
Residence approvals by New Zealand Residence Programme stream
In 2007/08, 46,077 people were approved for residence in 24,722 applications. Across the four streams:
- 27,303 people were approved through the Skilled/Business Stream (59percent of individuals approved for residence)
- 9,460 people were approved through the Uncapped Family Sponsored Stream (21percent)
- 5,177 people were approved through the Parent Sibling Adult Child Stream (11percent)
- 4,137 people were approved through the International/Humanitarian Stream (9percent).
Figure 6.1 shows the number of people approved for residence through the streams compared with planned levels under the New Zealand Residence Programme (NZRP) from 2001/02 to 2007/08.
Figure 6.1 Number of people approved for residence compared with the New Zealand Residence Programme planning level, 2001/02-2007/08
Note: Policies before 2007/08 have been grouped to match the streamed approach to the New Zealand Residence Programme in 2007/08. The programme's planning level is a range, so its minimum and maximum are shown.
Location of residence approvals
In 2007/08, 81percent of approved applications were made in New Zealand, an increase from 77percent in 2006/07. The proportion of onshore applications has increased significantly over the five years to 2007/08. This increase reflects the growing proportion of people living and working in New Zealand before applying for residence, and the immigration policies that support this transition.
Table 6.1 shows the proportion of approved applications made onshore for all NZRP streams in the decade to 2007/08.
|Year||New Zealand Residence Programme stream||Total (%)|
|Skilled/ Business (%)||Parent Sibling Adult Child (%)||Uncapped Family Sponsored (%)||International/ Humanitarian (%)|
Number of people per approved application
An average 1.9 people were approved per residence application in 2007/08. This average has changed very little since 1998/99.
From 1998/99 to 2007/08, the average family size in the:
- Skilled/Business Stream decreased from 2.6 to 2.3 people per application
- International/Humanitarian Stream fluctuated from 1.8 to 2.7 people per application, although in 2006/07 and 2007/08 it stayed at 2.7.
Table 6.2 shows the average number of people per approved residence application by the different NZRP streams in the decade to 2007/08.
|Year||New Zealand Residence Programme stream||Total|
|Skilled/ Business||Parent Sibling Adult Child||Uncapped Family Sponsored||International/ Humanitarian|
The average family size is higher for approved offshore applications than for approved onshore applications. In 2007/08, the average family size for approved onshore applications was 1.8 people per application compared with 2.2 for offshore applications. The average family size has implications for the NZRP because it affects the number of applications needed to meet the required number of approvals.
Figure 6.2 shows the onshore and offshore average number of people per approved residence application in the decade to 2007/08.
Figure 6.2 Average number of people per approved residence application, 1998/99-2007/08
Nationality of residence approvals
Figure 6.3 compares the nationalities of people approved for residence in 2005/06-2007/08. The United Kingdom is the largest source country of residence approvals (22percent). The proportion from the United Kingdom increased significantly in the first half of the decade (from 14percent in 2002/03 to 29percent in 2005/06) but has decreased since then. China is the second largest source country (13percent), followed by South Africa (9percent) and the Philippines (8percent).
Figure 6.3 Comparison of residence approvals by largest source countries, 2005/06-2007/08
Note: The percentages show the proportion of all approvals for each source country.
Nationality by residence stream
The United Kingdom is the largest source country of Skilled/Business Stream migrants (28percent), followed by South Africa and China (both 13percent), and the Philippines (12percent).
The United Kingdom (16percent) and China (14percent) were the largest source countries of Uncapped Family Sponsored Stream migrants.
China (23percent) and India (20percent) were the largest source countries of Parent Sibling Adult Child Stream migrants.
The three largest source countries of International/Humanitarian Stream migrants were Pacific nations, reflecting the high proportion of approvals in this stream through the Samoan Quota and the Pacific Access Category (PAC). Samoa was the largest source country (30percent), followed by Tonga (12percent), then Fiji (11percent).
Table K1 in Appendix K shows residence approvals in 2007/08 by nationality and NZRP stream.
Gender and age of residence approvals
Gender by stream
Five percent more females than males were approved for residence in 2007/08.
The Skilled/Business and International/Humanitarian Streams had smaller proportions of females than males (48 percent female in each group).
The Parent Sibling Adult Child and Uncapped Family Sponsored Child Streams had larger proportions of females than males (54percent and 60percent respectively).
Age by applicant type
The average age of people approved for residence in 2007/08 was 30 years. The average age for principal applicants was 35 years, with 66percent aged 20-39 years. The average age for secondary applicants was 23 years, with 53percent aged under 20 years.
Figure 6.4 shows the number and proportion of principal and secondary applicants by age group for all people approved for residence in 2007/08.
Figure 6.4 Age of people approved for residence by applicant type, 2007/08
Note: the percentages show the proportion of each applicant type by age group.
Table L1 in Appendix L shows the ratio of females to males granted residence by age and source country in 2007/08.
Age by New Zealand Residence Programme stream
In 2007/08, the average age of:
- Skilled/Business Stream migrants was 27 years, with 80percent aged under 40 years
- Uncapped Family Sponsored Stream migrants was 28 years, with 86percent aged under 40 years
- Parent Sibling Adult Child Stream migrants was 51 years, with 66percent aged 50 years and over
- International/Humanitarian Stream migrants was 24 years, with 63percent aged under 30 year.
Figure 6.5 shows the proportion of all people approved for residence by age group and NZRP stream in 2007/08.
Figure 6.5 Age of people approved for residence by New Zealand Residence Programme stream, 2007/08