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Economics

Economic Impacts Of Immigration Working Paper Series

The objectives of our economic research programmes are:

Labour Market Outcomes for Immigrants and the New Zealand-born 1997-2009

This report examines how labour market outcomes and returns to human capital vary in the overseas-born and New Zealand-born populations in New Zealand and whether these returns vary over time and across business cycles.

Productivity and Local Workforce Composition

This report examines the link between firm productivity and the population composition of the areas in which firms operate. The authors combine annual firm-level micro-data on production, covering a large proportion of the New Zealand economy, with area-level workforce characteristics obtained from population censuses.

Overall, the results support the existence of agglomeration effects that operate through labour markets. We find evidence of productive spillovers from operating in areas with high-skilled workers, and with high population density. A high skilled local workforce benefits firms in high-skilled and high-R&D industries, and small firms. The benefits of local population density are strongest for firms in dense areas, and for small and new firms. Firms providing local services are more productive in areas with high shares of migrants and new entrants, consistent with local demand factors.

New Zealand Research on the Economic Impacts of Immigration 2005–2010 - Synthesis and research agenda

This report reviews the findings of research conducted on the economic impacts of immigration in New Zealand between 2005 and 2010.

The Impact of Immigration and Local Workforce Characteristics on Innovation

This research explores the relationship between the characteristics of the workforce in an area (such as qualifications, migrant share, new to the area) and firms’ innovation outcomes in the area.

Immigrant Selection and the Returns to Human Capital in New Zealand and Australia

This paper reports findings on the economic dimensions of the decision to reside in Australia or New Zealand for New Zealand-born and Australian-born people as well as immigrants. The research examines the relationship between education, work experience and wages in New Zealand and Australia for individuals born in different countries in order to examine the skill transferability for migrants from these different countries and backgrounds.

Economic Impacts of Immigration: Scenarios Using a Computable General Equilibrium Model of the New Zealand Economy

This study reports on simulations of the economy-wide impact of immigration into New Zealand. Different levels, compositions and other assumptions are tested.

Results from simulations at both macro and disaggregated (industries, occupations, international trade, and the distribution of income) levels are discussed. The computer model predicts economic outcomes in 2021 following a change in the size and composition of immigration, relative to a “business-as-usual” scenario.

The Impact of Immigration on the Labour Market Outcomes of New Zealanders

This research estimates the impact of inflows of recent immigrants on the wages and employment of earlier migrants, the New Zealand-born workers, and recent migrants themselves.

Migrants and Labour Market Outcomes

This paper investigates the labour market outcomes of migrants to New Zealand. Labour market outcomes such as income, source of income, labour force status and occupation are included. The study uses data from the 1981, 1996, 2001 and 2006 censuses.

The Labour Market Adjustment of Immigrants in New Zealand

This research uses data from the 1997 – 2007 New Zealand Income Survey to examine the path of economic outcomes of immigrants in New Zealand. It explores how employment rates, hourly wages, annual income and occupations for immigrants compare to those of similarly skilled New Zealand-born people and the extent that these change with years in New Zealand. Outcomes are estimated for immigrants from different birth regions and with different qualifications.

Housing Markets and Migration: Evidence from New Zealand

This paper investigates the relationship between changes in population size and housing sale prices and rents in local areas. Population change is broken down into new immigrants, New Zealanders returning from abroad, and New Zealanders and previous immigrants moving from other regions within New Zealand. Data is combined from the 1991 to 2006 censuses, Quotable Value New Zealand, and the Department of Building and Housing.

The Economic Impact of Immigration on Housing in New Zealand 1991–2016

A descriptive analysis of trends using the 1991 to 2006 censuses found that the number of new households being created between censuses has been relatively stable (ranging from 80,000 between 1996 and 2001 to 109,000 between 2001 and 2006).

Settlement Patterns and the Geographic Mobility of Recent Migrants to New Zealand

As part of the Economic Impacts of Immigration working paper series, this research evaluates what draws migrants to live in particular areas and how these patterns of settlement have changed over time.

Fiscal Impacts of Immigration 2005/06

Review of the fiscal impacts of migrants – contribution to central government revenue less attributable government expenditure for the 2005/06 year.

Measuring the Economic Impact of Immigration: A Scoping Paper [pdf 57 pages, 735KB]

The Economic Impacts of Immigration is a three-year programme of research aiming to identify and model the economic consequences of migration to New Zealand.

Benefit Receipt of Migrants to New Zealand 2007

This report details findings from the 12th annual information match between Ministry of Social Development and Department of Labour information databases to determine the extent of benefit receipt by migrants to New Zealand. The report shows that in 2007 the benefit receipt rate was significantly lower than what it was in 2002, falling by 1.5 percent.

International Trade Negotiations and the Trans-Border Movement of People: A Review of the Literature

This report reviews the international and New Zealand literatures on the interaction between enhancing cross-border trade and investment, through negotiations and agreements, and international migration.

Archived Economics Reports