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A literature review of the forms of age discrimination: an economic perspective


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Dixon, S, and Stillman, S. The Impact of Firm Closure on Workers' Future Employment and Earnings. LEED Reports. Wellington: Statistics New Zealand, September 2008. Retrieved from http://www.stats.govt.nz/leed/reports.htm (17 February 2009).

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[15] Sociological conceptions of prejudice also suggest that prejudices do not always lead to discrimination. Social and economic variables can reinforce and counteract beliefs, and beliefs will vary in individual intensity. In some cases, the past casts a long shadow over present preferences, and some preferences become deeply rooted as habits, traditions and culture (Becker 1992, 1996, 2006). Individual preferences can be situation-induced and interest-induced beliefs (Elster 1983). Robert K. Merton pioneered a taxonomy made up of: the unprejudiced non-discriminator - the all weather liberal; the unprejudiced discriminator - the fair weather liberal; the prejudiced non-discriminator - the timid bigot; and the prejudiced discriminator - active bigot. Fair weather liberals and timid bigots support or do not support discrimination depending on whether it is easy, expedient or profitable to do so (Palmore 1999; Merton 1949). There is a large body of psychological literature on implicit or unconscious bias. This literature goes beyond explanations of prejudice based on rigid, repressed, authoritarian personalities; economic insecurity; competition for resources and in-group/out-group dynamics. See Project Implicit at www.projectimplicit.net and see https://implicit.harvard.edu/implicit for an implicit bias test. There is also a law and economics literature on implicit bias, see Jolls and Sunstein 2006a, 2006b.

[18] Many state legislatures prohibited the entry of out-of-state banks and restricted the number of branches that a bank could open with within state borders. There were also federal prohibitions on inter-state branch banking.